Risk Assessment of Grilled Food


Report no:

Publishing: 21.03.2024

Key message:

VKM shall assess the health risks posed by eating grilled food.

The risk assessment is commissioned by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.


In 2007 VKM assessed the health risks of eating grilled food. Many conditions may have changed since VKM's previous assessment. The grill season has lengthened, and the selection of foods and types of grills has widened. In addition, new knowledge about unwanted compounds from grilling that are harmful to health, known as process contaminants, has emerged.

The most well-known compounds harmful to health that can occur from heat treatment are acrylamide, furan, heterocyclic aromatic amines (mutagens from frying) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

To provide current and relevant advice to consumers, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority needs updated knowledge about the formation of process contaminants in various foods prepared with different grilling methods, and an assessment of the risk these may pose to human health.


The Norwegian Food Safety Authority asks VKM to:

  1. Identify process contaminants that are formed to a greater extent by grilling compared with frying and give an overview of reported amount of these substances in different types of grilled food.
  2. Highlight conditions (for example grilling devices and methods, and type of food) that are relevant for the formation of the identified food processing substances by grilling.
  3. If possible, from available information, evaluate health risks related to consumption of grilled food compared with fried food.

Project group

The project group consists of members from the Panel on Contaminants:

The risk assessment will be approved by VKM's Panel on Contaminants. It is due to be published in December 2023.


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The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment

T: 21 62 28 00

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0213 Oslo

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