Genetically Modified Organisms
Assessment of the genetically modified cotton GHB811 under EU Regulation 1829/2003/EC on genetically modified food and feed (application EFSA-GMO-ES-2018-154)
Report no: 2022:06
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) has assessed an application for approval of the genetically modified cotton GHB811 for food and feed uses, import and processing in the EU.
In accordance with an assignment specified by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) and the Norwegian Environment Agency (NEA), VKM assesses whether genetically modified organisms (GMOs) intended for the European market can pose risks to human or animal health, or the environment in Norway. VKM assesses the scientific documentation regarding GMO applications seeking approval for use of GMOs as food and feed, processing, or cultivation.
The EU Regulation 1829/2003/EC (Regulation) covers living GMOs that fall under the Norwegian Gene Technology Act, as well as processed food and feed from GMOs (dead material) that fall under the Norwegian Food Act. The regulation is currently not part of the EEA agreement or implemented in Norwegian law.
Norway conducts its own assessments of GMO applications in preparation for the possible implementation of the Regulation.
In accordance with the assignment by NFSA and NEA, VKM assesses GMO applications during public hearings initiated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as after EFSA has published its own risk assessment of a GMO, up until EU member countries vote for or against approval in the EU Commission.
Genetically modified cotton GHB811
Genetically modified cotton GHB811 (application EFSA-GMO-ES-2018-154) was developed by transforming plant cells with the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cotton expresses the two genes 2mepsps and hppdPfW336-1Pa, which confer tolerance to glyphosate-based herbicides and HPPD (hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) -inhibitor herbicides such as Isoxaflutole, respectively.
VKM has not provided comments to EFSA regarding the application EFSA-GMO-ES-2018-154 during the EFSA public hearing in accordance with the assignment from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority and the Norwegian Environment Agency, due to other priorities.
However, VKM has assessed the documentation in application EFSA-GMO-ES-2018-154 and EFSA's scientific opinion on genetically modified cotton GHB811. VKM concludes that the applicant's scientific documentation for cotton GHB811 is satisfactory for risk assessment, and in accordance with EFSA guidelines for risk assessment of genetically modified plants for food or feed uses.
The genetic modifications in cotton GHB811 do not indicate an increased health or environmental risk in Norway compared with EU countries. EFSA's risk assessment is sufficient also for Norwegian conditions. VKM's GMO panel has therefore not performed a full risk assessment of cotton GHB811.
About the assignment
The assignment is divided into three stages. In stage 1, VKM shall assess the health and environmental risks of the genetically modified organism and derived products in connection with the EFSA public hearing of GMO applications. VKM shall review the scientific documentation that the applicant has submitted and possibly provide comments to EFSA. VKM must also consider: i) whether there are specific Norwegian conditions that could give other risks in Norway than those mentioned in the application, ii) whether the Norwegian diet presents a different health risk for the Norwegian population should the GMO be approved, compared to the European population, and iii) risks associated with co-existence with conventional and/or ecologic production of plants for GMOs seeking approval for cultivation. Relevant measures to ensure co-existence must also be considered.
In stage 2, VKM shall assess whether comments from Norway have been satisfactorily answered by EFSA. In addition, VKM shall assess whether comments from other countries imply need for further follow-up.
If EFSAs response to Norwegian comments is not satisfactory, or comments by other countries imply the need for further follow-up, VKM shall in stage 3 perform a risk assessment of these conditions, including conditions specific to Norway.